Sunday, January 26, 2020

Liberal Concepts to Promote Peace

Liberal Concepts to Promote Peace Dele-Adelodun Mobolaji Critically evaluate the claims made by Liberals regarding how we might best promote peaceful cooperation between states. INTRODUCTION Liberalism can be described roughly as the ‘freedom for the individual’ as it believes that humans are good natured beings.[1] It is often perceived as the only true â€Å"persuasive and alternative view† of International Relations.[2] The core of the liberal peace theory constitutes a definition of long-term peace and security which is based on both the values of democracy and justice. Liberals have made certain claims as to how its theories can help create peaceful cooperation among states. The concept of liberal peace was first suggested by liberal classical analyst Immanuel Kant[3] in the late 18th century. His dream was that all countries become incorporated into a web of political, commercial and organizational arrangements that are mutually reinforcing and rewarding and thus reduce, if not eliminate the probability of conflict.[4] Kant suggested that economic mutuality and trade creates favourable conditions for international cooperation among states. His s uggestion also includes the implementation of democracy functions as the basis for global peace, democracy will also check the power of leaders and states, wars are likely to become less prevalent when and if democracy flourishes throughout the world. Lastly, through the formation of international organisations for the regulation of the international interdependence, their good relationships are secure. It is not individual factors, which lead to a more peaceful world, but rather all the element working in conjunction which eliminates conflict. Where these settings are present, state liberalists believe there is peace or these conditions are ideal for building peace. Their main claims are democracy, interdependence (commerce through trade), and international organizations systematically and symbiotically enhance the absence of warfare and the creation of enduring peace. The core concepts, claims and foundations liberals came up with will be explained in this essay, how Interdependence, democracy and formation of international organisations would help attain world peace. BODY Democracy The concept of liberal peace was first suggested by liberal classical analyst Immanuel Kant and referred mainly to democratic states. This association of democracy with peace is based in Kant, who believed that lasting peace would only occur after states had a representative government with separation of powers and civil constitutions respecting private property and asserting equality before the law.[5] Leaders of democracies as well as the citizens generally benefit from avoiding conflict especially with one another because the political cost of fighting wars are higher for democratic leaders.[6] If they win a costly war, the domestic political cost may be high. Jack Levys famous assertion encapsulates the idea behind Democratic Peace Theory as well as any written, which is perhaps why it is referenced so often: The absence of war between democracies comes as close to anything we have to an empirical law in international relations.[7] Liberals suggests that democracies will rarely g o to war against one another or even threaten each other. This has almost become a statement of truth. Arguably one of the forerunners of modern liberal democracy, the United States, has an international policy based upon the principles of the democratic peace theory, President Clinton stated in his 1994 state of union address that ‘Democracies do not attack each other’ meaning that ‘ultimately the best strategy to insure our security and build a durable peace is to support the advance of democracy elsewhere’[8]. Democracies do not usually go to war with each other mainly because of institutional constrains and because of the democratic norms and cultures they have. The first institutional constraint, explains that democratic governments are reluctant to go to war because they must answer to the citizens, Michael Doyle builds on Immanuel Kant proposition.[9] The second institutional constraint include checks and balances, it looks at three specific features of a state’s domestic political structure: executive selection, political competition and the pluralism of foreign policy decision making process. States with executives answerable to section body should be more highly constrained and hence less likely to go to war.[10] The democratic norms elucidation holds that â€Å"the culture, perceptions and practices that permit compromise and the peaceful resolution of conflicts without the threat of violence within countries come to apply across national boundaries toward other democratic countries.†[11] This means that democratic states have developed a positive view of other democratic states. Many liberal theorists are of the view that it is only when there is an end of tyranny around the globe and universal liberal democracy and respect for human rights that international peace will prevail.[12] They also make claims that when democracies come into conflict with each other, they only rarely threaten to use force, because it is illegitimate to do so and believe that conflicts are to be resolved peacefully by negotiation and compromise.[13] According to Doyle â€Å"liberal democracies are uniquely willing to eschew the use of force in their relations with one another.†[14] There have been debates in International Relation about whether democracies are generally more peaceful than other types of systems. The issue of the proposition that democracies do not fight one another does not mean that democracies do not fight at all. For example the Second World War could be seen as a fight against fascism and therefore for democracy. More controversially one justification for the Vietnam War of the 1960s and the 1970s was that it was necessary in order to protect the values of the free world.[15] The argument here is that liberal democracies are much more inclined to conduct the ir relations with others on a peaceful basis. From this it follows the best way to ensure a long lasting peace in international relations through the spread of liberal democratic government on a global scale. Economic Interdependence Economic interdependence has similarly made a contribution to our understanding of peace. There have been harmony of interest between the states and people of the world, these mutual interests are rooted to mutual benefits which arise from commerce through trade. As Angell suggests, war can become obsolete if trade flourishes between countries because trade brings mutual gains to all the actors, irrespective of how powerful they are.[16] Moreover, free trade mitigates barriers and tensions between countries and propels interaction, friendship and understanding.[17] Trade is a one of the major parts of liberal tradition as well as of Kant. Other theorists like Montesquieu claim that â€Å"Commerce is the cure for the most destructive prejudices,† and â€Å"Peace is the natural effect of trade.†[18] There is evidence that trade helps to reduce interstate conflicts, The World Trade Organisation (WTO) list ten benefits of the trading system it manages, the first being that it helps to keep the peace between states because ‘sales people are usually reluctant to fight their customers’.[19] Trade depends on the expectation of peace from with the trading partner. Liberals have always argued that interdependence lowers the likelihood of war by increasing the value of trading over the alternative of aggression meaning that independent states would rather trade than evade.[20] The use of force reduces the gains from trade and imperils the flow of information necessary for the development of mutual understanding.[21]The pacific benefits of economically important bilateral trade seem well illustrated by the experience of the United States with China over the past twenty years. After the Communist government began to open its economy in the late 1970s, its political relations w ith the United States became far more peaceful than they had been during the Cold War.[22] This thaw in relations began with a deliberate political decision to improve them, but as trade increased, both sides gained a greater stake in keeping the peaceful. This still happened considering the fact that China did not become significantly more democratic. Although there was a period in history, the period up to World War I where there was an inconsistency for the liberal theory, the Europeans reached an unprecedented level of trade, yet it did not stop them from proceeding into war. Realist argue to contradict the liberal theory claiming that the war was preceded by high interdependence level but trade levels had been high for the previous thirty years, but even if the interdependence was a necessary condition for the war, it was not sufficient.[23] Liberals also argue that economic interdependence between states reduces conflict as conflict discourages commerce. Economic interchanges favour world cooperation. Countries that are interested in benefiting from international trade and commerce necessarily need to create friendly relations with other states. On the one hand, economic interactions between two different states inevitably necessitate that those countries augment the number of their contacts for different reasons. Throughout history states have sought power by mean of military force and territorial expansion. But for high industrialized countries, economic development and foreign trade are more adequate and less costly means of achieving prominence and prosperity. That is the costs of using force have increased and the benefits have declined. For example, economically successful countries of the post-war period are the trading states such as Germany and Japan have refrained from traditional military political option of high military expenditure and economic self-sufficiency instead they have chosen the trading option of an intensified division of labour and increased interdependence.[24] Trade raises the cost of conflict and also the benefits of conflict avoidance and conflict management. The costly nature of conflict is also central to contemporary applications of the bargaining theory commercial relations increase the likelihood of peace because trade and investment make costly signals possible. This argument particularly corresponds to the idea that the risk of conflicts between states is reduced by creating a common interest in trade and cooperation for the state’s mutual benefits. An intergovernmental organisation can be defined as a formal, continuous institution established by treaty or other agreement between governments with a long –range purpose. In the contemporary world, international law is often expressed in international organizations. International Organisations are included in the Kantian peace theory. Kant believed that international law would operate most powerfully among democracies (republics), which would form a loose â€Å"federation† of sovereign states (an international organisation) to facilitate their peaceful relations and provide a framework for collective security against threats from states that were not republics.[25] The evolution of the European Common Market into the European Union required European states to restore stable democratic government to ease the flow of goods, services, capital and labour throughout Western Europe and this experience recorded great success. There has been growth in the number of internati onal organizations since the end of World War II. In 1909 there were 37 increased to 293 in 1990, there would not have been an increase if these organisations had little or no contribution to peace creation which is usually set out in their goals. International Governmental Organisations (IGOs), these organisations are usually multipurpose and they get involved in a wide range of activities which include promoting international commerce and investment, environmental concerns, health or human rights which all come back to the promotion of peace among its member states.[26] International organisations may play a role in adjudication and arbitration of disputes by mediating among conflicting parties. These activities are important because they reduce the cost of enforcing contracts, encourage their creation, and promote exchange.[27] Like in the case where the secretary general of NATO helped mediate the dispute between Greece and turkey over Cyprus in 1967 and was able to forfend the widening of the war.[28] Norms and rules developed within IGOs may facilitate arms control and delegitimize the use of force. The Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, for example helped to free the region of nuclear weapons. Shared norms create common interest helps to promote cooperation. IGOs may develop interests and preferences that are more stable than and to a degree independent of those of their member state.[29] International Governmental Organisations foster ways in which countries may peacefully resolve their conflicts while expanding the ways in which they view commonalities among their interests with wide-ranging set of potential belligerents as well as potential allies. However, it is also important to note other extremely significant institutions that assist in the making the world more peaceful by providing economic stability, cooperation and growth in the world such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and others. The most notable international organisation for the analysis is the United Nations (UN). The United Nations recorded great success in the intervention in Mozambique where there was a struggle to transit into democracy. There was a civil war which broke out in 1997 the Mozambique Resistance Movement was formed to oppose Government (Front of Liberation of Mozambique) which was in power at that time.[30] The conflict ended after the intervention of the United N ations in 1992 and a general peace was reached. During the ‘experience of Mozambique’, the United Nations managed to achieve one of its ‘rare peacekeeping successes. If not for the intervention of the UN the outcome of the civil war would have been disastrous. Liberal institutional theory argues that IGOs foster nonviolent conflict resolution and constrain the advent of disputes. This explains that IGOs resolve disputes preferably by the peaceful methods rather than the use of force. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the claims made by liberals to achieving peaceful cooperation among states are possible through the casual effects of democracy, interdependence and membership of international organisation. This three elements work best when they are applied together. The essay explains that if the Kantian elements are set at high levels, the incidence of fatal disputes will drop. Liberal analyses indicate that each of the three elements of Kantian peace does make a significant, independent contribution to peaceful interstate relations. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alec Stone Sweet and Thomas Brunell. Constructing a Supranational Constitution: Dispute Resolution and Governance in the European Community American Political Science Review 92 (1998): 63-81. Bruce Russett ‘Liberalism’ in International Relations Theories 3rd ed.Angell, Norman: ‘The Great Illusion’, London: Heinemann, 1910. Burchill, Scott et. al: Theories of International Relations. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009 Bruce Russett and John Oneal. 2001. Triangulating Peace: democracy, interdependence and international Organizations. Christopher Layne, ‘Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace’, International Security, Vol. 19, No.2 (Fall, 1994), pp. 5-49 Dale C. Copeland, â€Å"Economic Interdependence and War: A theory of Trade Expectations,† International Security, Vol. 20, no.4 (Spring 1996) Jill Steans Lloyd Pettiford, International Relations: Perspectives and themes John M. Owen, ‘How Liberalism Produces Democratic Peace’, International Security, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Fall, 1994), pp. 87-125 Kant, I.,Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, 1975, at http://www.constitution.org/kant/perpeace.htm. Karle, Warren: Realism and Liberalism continue to shape the ways in which policy makers conceptualize international relations, Australian Public Service Center, Shedden Working Papers Series, 2003. Levy, Jack. Domestic Politics and War. In The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars. Robert Rotberg and Theodore Rabb, eds. Cambridge University Press, 1989. Michael N. Barnett and Martha Finnemore, The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International Organizations (1999). Michael W. Doyle, ‘Kant, Liberal legacies, and Foreign Affairs’, Philosophy and Public affairs, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Summer, 1983), pp.205-235 Ray, James Lee (1998),, â€Å"Does Democracy Cause Peace?†Annual Review of Political Science, 1. pp. 27-46 Russett Bruce Martin (1993), Grasping the Democratic Peace The Cyprus conflict at http://www.cyprus-conflict.net/narrative-main-%203.html Weinstein, Jeremy M., January 2002. Mozambique: A Fading U.N. Success Story. Journal of Democracy, 13 (1), 141-156 World Trade Organisation, http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/10ben_e/10b01_e.htm 1 [1] Michael W. Doyle, ‘Kant, Liberal legacies, and Foreign Affairs’, Philosophy and Public affairs, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Summer, 1983), pp.205-235 [2] Karle, Warren: Realism and Liberalism continue to shape the ways in which policy makers conceptualize international relations, Australian Public Service Center, Shedden Working Papers Series, 2003. [3] Kant, I.,Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, 1975, at http://www.constitution.org/kant/perpeace.htm. [4] Bruce Russett and John Oneal. 2001. Triangulating Peace: democracy, interdependence and international organizations. [5] Ray, James Lee, â€Å"Does Democracy Cause Peace?† Annual Review of Political Science, 1. (1998), pp. 27-46 [6] Bruce Russett and John Oneal. (2001) n 4 above [7] Levy, Jack. Domestic Politics and War. In The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars. Robert Rotberg and Theodore Rabb, eds. Cambridge University Press, 1989. [8] John M. Owen, ‘How Liberalism Produces Democratic Peace’, International Security, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Fall, 1994), pp. 87-125 [9] Christopher Layne, ‘Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace’, International Security, Vol. 19, No.2 (Fall, 1994), pp. 5-49 [10] Ibid page 9 [11] Russett, Grasping the Democratic Peace, p. 31 [12] Jill Steans Lloyd Pettiford, International Relations: Perspectives and themes [13] Bruce Russett ‘Liberalism’ in International Relations Theories 3rd ed. [14] ibid [15] Jill steans Lloyd Pettiford n 12 above [16] Angell, Norman: ‘The Great Illusion’, London: Heinemann, 1910. [17] Burchill, Scott et. al: Theories of International Relations. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009 [18]Michael W. Doyle, n1 above Pages 205-235 [19] World Trade Organisation, http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/10ben_e/10b01_e.htm [20] Dale C. Copeland, â€Å"Economic Interdependence and War: A theory of Trade Expectations,† International Security, Vol. 20, no.4 (Spring 1996) [21] Bruce Russett and John Oneal. (2001) n 4 above [22] Ibid. [23] Dale C. Copeland n 20 above [24] Robert H. Jackson, Georg Sà ¸rensen, ‘Introduction to International Relations’ Oxford University Press, 2007 Political Science [25] Russett, Bruce John R. Oneal., (2001) n 4 above [26] ibid [27] Alec Stone Sweet and Thomas Brunell. Constructing a Supranational Constitution: Dispute Resolution and Governance in the European Community American Political Science Review 92 (1998): 63-81. [28] The Cyprus conflict at http://www.cyprus-conflict.net/narrative-main-%203.html [29] Michael N. Barnett and Martha Finnemore, The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International Organizations (1999). [30] Weinstein, Jeremy M., January 2002. Mozambique: A Fading U.N. Success Story. Journal of Democracy, 13 (1), 141-156

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The Effects of the Media on Body Image

The pressure to be thin has amplified significantly due to the growing influence of the media. Despite numerous of other factors that contribute to society's view of the ideal body image, the media by far has the largest influence on society through icons that constantly reinforce unrealistic beauty standards and idealize the thin. The media persistently glamorizes the extremely skinny, which greatly impacts how society views different body types. Pictures of impossibly thin models are continuously pasted all over billboards and magazines. The skinny are looked up to, and the obese are shunned. Popular television shows that include overweight characters depict them either as comical outcasts or failures. There is also an abundance of television programs that focus solely on overweight individuals attempting to lose weight. For instance, The Biggest Loser is a very successful television series and publishing enterprise which selects participants based on body size. According to John Whyte, MD, in â€Å"Media Portrayal of People Who are Obese,† â€Å"The Biggest Loser promotes the perception that obesity is caused by individual failure rather than a mixture of individual, environment, and genetic sources. The popular television show also suggests that obese people are fat because they are lazy and that the only way for them to be respected and accepted is to lose the extra weight. These type of shows portray obesity in a certain way that promotes negative perceptions and fosters prejudice against the obese. Viewers don't consciously think about it, but the more they a re around the media that subtly promotes these perceptions, the more likely the perceptions are to be engrained in their minds. Moreover, the high standards of beauty that the media implements daily are nearly impossible for the majority of people to meet. Even though the average American is at least slightly overweight or obese, popular media pushes out derogatory themes that discriminate unfairly against the obese. The media's strong influence on society against bigger body types has caused numerous of dire effects on the way people think today. As stated by Shelly Grabe of Medical News Today in her article â€Å"Concern over Strong Media Influence on Women's Body Image,† researchers have recently conducted a meticulous study on the extent to which the media affects women. They found a tremendous difference between those who were exposed to media and those who were not; the women who had been exposed reported less satisfaction with their bodies (Grabe). Exposure to media that depicts dangerously thin actresses and models significantly increases people's distress about their bodies, thereby influencing dissatisfaction and chances of engaging in unhealthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, research has â€Å"repeatedly shown that constant exposure to thin models fosters body image concerns and disordered eating† in many people. Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia have been steadily more common in younger generations today. Subliminal messages from the media about what the â€Å"ideal† body should look like molds the naive teenagers' mindset and influences their definitions of what is ugly and what is beautiful. There are few that escape the inundating influences of the media. In fact, â€Å"the average American sees three thousand ads per day† (Jean Kilbourne). Therefore, the media does not just play a small role in influencing society's view on different body types. The media relentlessly bombards society with negative connotations of the overweight and the fat, unwelcomingly shaping America's perception of the ideal body. Discrimination against body types that do not fit into the media's definition of beauty has immensely impacted society. However, the media does not have to be such a big influence. There have been a plethora of organizations that exist to help boost the self esteem of those who suffer from harmful messages sent by the media about what their bodies should look like. According to the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), a civil rights organization, was started in 1969 to â€Å"eliminate discrimination based on body size and to provide obese people with the tools for self-empowerment though public education, advocacy, and support. † NAAFA delivers a message to society that belies the media's input of the ideal body type. The non-profit organization seeks to better society and to limit discrimination against the obese. There are many similar organizations and groups that help support people who are facing discrimination from their peers. Additionally, there has been an ongoing growth of celebrities who embrace their bodies for what they are. Celebrities such as Adele serve as an excellent inspiration and role model to people who look up to them. Seventeen Magazine has also initiated a Beauty Peace Treaty which encourages females all around the world to pledge to accept their bodies. The treaty has gained the signatures and vows of over four thousand people and continues to grow in popularity. Even though popular media is the root of the negative impressions of the obese, society does not have to be anchored in place to those stereotypes. The media has the greatest incessant impact on society’s view of the ideal body type. From advertisements to song lyrics, popular media is ubiquitous, constantly reinforcing erroneous standards of beauty and flawed perceptions of the obese. However, there are a variety of different resources that help combat the negative influences from the media and encourage those that suffer from low body image.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Conservatism in American politics Essay

Conservatism commonly emanates from the domestic policies of republican administrations (Maisel 84). This ideology finds reflection in fiscal policies that support the major role of state and local governments in domestic affairs with the federal government focusing on foreign relations, national defense, and federal legislative enactments. Conservatism also means economic policies espousing minimal government intervention in business and economic growth via supply side economics by boosting production through capital access and tax breaks. Strong nationalist and religious values dominate conservative policies (84). However, there are also democratic administrations with conservative policies. Ronald Reagan was a republican when he became president and considered a conservative. His fiscal policies included the largest tax cuts to boost production, reduction in government spending on domestic areas, and concentration of expenditures on national defense (Light 243). The stress on federalism and the role of the state government became stronger through community level solutions and private sector initiatives on social issues such as the drug problem (252). Economic policies included loose or minimal regulation of the business sector such as removing price controls on domestically sourced oil and limiting the entry of imported automobiles from Japan to protect the local car industry (251). His administration also sought to control monetary supply to reduce inflation (250). Religious beliefs came into play in his handling of the AIDS issue by excluding those with AIDS from mainstream society based on the premise that AIDS is a manifestation of immoral acts. George H. W. Bush was also a republican president and a conservative. As the Cold War ended, his administration faced a huge budget deficit (Light 256). With limited funds and the burgeoning domestic issues, his fiscal policy focused on basic issues by increasing federal spending on education, health care for mothers and children, and technological research. Bush signed into law a number of bills that supported civil rights with the disabilities act and environmental protection via the clean air act (285). His administration also supported federal expenditures on the country’s highway system and law enforcement initiatives (285). He campaigned against new taxes but failed to achieve this because of strong pressure from the democrat majority in the legislature (277, 283). Bush implemented laissez faire. His administration was a key player in creating the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement that removes tariffs for goods traded by America, Canada and Mexico (285). This agreement controlled intellectual property and eased cross-country investments (285). Bill Clinton was a democrat but considered by some as a conservative because of some controversial policies. The conservative aspects of his fiscal policy included tax cuts through the earned income tax credit that operated as a way of reducing the tax exaction for workers with below a floor amount (Light 277). The signing of the budget reconciliation law decreased the taxes paid by those with low income and small businesses (285). He also signed NAFTA, initially negotiated by Bush (288). The non-conservative aspects of his fiscal policy included increasing taxes for wealthy citizens, budget allocation for healthcare reform and health insurance program for children, and extension of copyright regulation (285). Clinton’s economic policies had a tinge of conservatism with deregulation of trade (288). However, he was able to achieve economic growth by focusing on controlling inflation, reducing unemployment, and securing social welfare and other services (285). Conservatism emerged in his ‘don’t ask don’t tell’ policy that allowed entry of homosexuals into the military as long as they do not disclose their sexual orientation (279). This received lesser criticism from conservatives and strong criticism from the gay and civil rights movements. In contemporary administrations, the trend is towards renewed conservatism given emerging conditions. The divide between the conservative republicans and non-conservative democrats is slowly diminishing (Maisel 86), with flexible administrative policies considered on an issue-to-issue basis.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Professional Self Into The Health Care System Essay

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to reflect on a specific clinical experience, in hope to increase personal and professional agency to meet the College of Nurses of Ontario standards. Reflecting on this clinical situation will aid in the theme of integration of the professional self into the health care system. I will start off with looking back at the situation, and then elaborate in more detail objectively and subjectively. After identifying the relevant factors of the event, I will go into more depth by analyzing the entire event using scholarly literature. Following the analysis, I will revise on how the informational gathered will affect my practice in assisting in building my professional self into the healthcare system. I will then determine which practices should be preserved and which should be changed. The goal is to reflect on a situation that occurred and to gain insight how to approach future similar situations. Look Back December 18, 2015 was my second shift at Sunny brook hospital on the trauma unit. It was my first night shift as a nursing student. This situation that occurred was extremely meaningful to me as a student nurse because the events made me fell very overwhelmed, stressed, and unable to make appropriate decisions. Reflecting back on that night, it made me realize that I did not exemplify best practice. I personally believe my personal emotions clouded my judgment, which interfered with my performance and my lack of knowledge on how toShow MoreRelatedThe View Of Health Care Systems1452 Words   |  6 Pagesilluminates the need to reconceptualise the notion of health care systems in Ghana. The dual approach of conceptualizing the Ghanaian health care system ignores realities on the ground. The dual approach as oppose to the triple-systems approach, downplays the essence of self-care as a health care seeking option for many Ghanaians (). 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Gender Equity Essay - 1321 Words

Gender Equity Are male students and female student’s receiving the same opportunities when it comes to Math and Science in the schools? I don’t believe they are. This is why gender equity is a major problem facing our schools today. Many girls are having very negative attitudes towards Math and Science. Through doing research on this topic I found out why. In the article How Research Helps Address Gender Equity, a very shocking and eye opening thing was written. I learned that children as young as kindergarten already have formed set stereotypes about Science and Math. The boys in the class wanted to and believed that they could be Scientist while the girls in the class did not. They perceived being a†¦show more content†¦He also seemed to talk down to the girls. My self-esteem in Math wasn’t good going into this course and when I came out of it, it only became worse. I was terrified of Math. I don’t think my Math teacher or other teachers intentionally call on boys and encourage them more but it ends up happening anyway. Another problem that girls are faced with is they aren’t getting the same opportunities and encouragement that boys receive in lab experiments. All of these things play a big factor in girls having low self-esteem when it comes to Math and Science. When doing my research on gender equity, I found a lot of good steps taken to improve the equality of boys and girls in school. One of the first things that needs to be done is a teacher assessment. The article Fair and Square, says that the teacher should have a friend or colleague come into the class to do the assessment. The observer would write a b if the teacher asked a boy the question and a g if the teacher asked the girl the question. The observer would also â€Å"make a brief notation of the type of reaction you make to each child, whether it’s praise, criticism, remediation, or acceptance†(Sadker , Sadker , Stulberg, 2001 ). I think this assessment is a good idea. However, I would think if the teacher knew that he/she was being assessed they would be more conscience of calling on both boys and girls the sameShow MoreRelatedGender Equity Issues1157 Words   |  5 PagesGender Equity Issues Case study Gather Information Gathering information to validate gender issues in the workplace is a better approach than merely assuming the validity of information provided. Gender discrimination is a problem across different countries, organizations, and cultures. It is rooted in traditional patriarchal norms, which put women as minor people in their respective workplaces and homes. Gender discrimination negatively affects women because it harms their social health,Read More Gender Equity Essay906 Words   |  4 PagesGender Equity From the day that individuals are born stereotypes of males and females are impressed upon them. Most people believe that males are supposed to be competitive, aggressive and logical thinkers among other masculine traits. Females on the other hand should be sociable, passive and emotional thinkers. People all over the world accept all of these stereotypes of females and males. These stereotypes also carry over into the way teachers conduct their classrooms. In education both gendersRead MoreEssay on Gender Equity in Education1632 Words   |  7 PagesGender Equity in Education Gender equity issues in mathematics and science have been the focus of many educators and researchers for years. Women have often been denied an equal education in math and science for many reasons. Parents and teachers must realize this fact and change their habits wherever necessary. Girls must be given the same opportunity as boys from the beginning, particularly in math and science where girls tend to lag behind. First of all, the term gender equityRead MoreUnderstanding And Supporting Gender Equity754 Words   |  4 PagesMulticultural Education focuses on both understanding and supporting gender equity in schools. Supporting gender equality use to mean providing both equal access and equal outcomes for all students regardless of their gender; equality meant proving students with the exact same rather than providing students with opportunities and experiences based on what they needed in order to succeed and better themselves. Equality does not only focus on gender and understanding, it also includes other diverse aspects ofRead MoreFeminism And Gender Equality And Equity Based On Gender1060 Words   |  5 Pagesoften misinformed or given bad first impressions of feminism. However, feminism is equal rights for all people of different race, sex, gender, and sexuality. Many of the people that give feminism a bad name, include a self-proclaimed feminist that is running for presidency, and meninists who are satirical equal rights activists. In reality, feminism is pro-gender equality and opportunities for all types of people. Feminism is the belief that people of all different backgrounds should be treatedRead MoreEssay about Gender Equity in Education3139 Words   |  13 Pages Gender equity in terms of education is about the socialization of men and women and the results of this process on the life outcomes of the two genders (Husen Postlethwaite, 1994). In the United States, the education system is required to treat males and females equally. There has been much research done to compare the genders in all areas. In the past, research has found that women fall far behind men in many areas such as math, and science, but men lag behind women in certain areas as wellRead MoreEssay on Gender Equity in College Sports1139 Words   |  5 PagesGender Equity in College Sports â€Å"Gender Equality In College Sports?† An on going issue facing education today is the growing controversial topic of gender equality in sports participation and it’s so call quota for achieving equality. The most notable action that has taken place as women continue to strive towards equality in the athletic realm is what is known as, Title IX. The basic ideas underlying Title IX are that â€Å"if an institution sponsors an athletics program, it must provide equalRead More Gender Equity in Math and Science Essay2572 Words   |  11 PagesGender Equity in Math and Science From the research I have read while there is a disagreement on when and how much of a gender gap exists in math and science, there is definitely an equity issue that needs addressing. There seems to be an abundance of information about equity issues and as a future teacher I feel that it is important to examine these issues. If gender equity issues exist in todays’ classrooms why do they and what can be done to help correct it. Everything IveRead More Gender Equity in Education Essay examples2921 Words   |  12 PagesGender Equity in Education â€Å"It is early indeed that children show an awareness of the message that†¦ females are generally less interesting and important than males are†¦ The (often inadvertent) bearers of this message include parents, peers, and teachers.† (Lips, 1979, p. 128.) The absence of gender equity can be damaging to both males and females. Surprisingly most of the teachers and administrators are unaware of this problem. Organizations such as the American Association of University WomenRead MoreGender Equity Is Not More Equal Terms1755 Words   |  8 PagesMan has been known by some to be the dominate gender as men have been known to be the provider and the main support of most families and even to this day. Woman are in constant competition daily as they strive for gender equity in all facets of lives. Women’s pay, certain benefits, and the way they are perceived to the general public is a lot different than to that of a man. The place that we currently are with social r ights I believe that gender equity is not enough to bring us closer to equality

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Book Report on Paper Towns by John Green - 1351 Words

Book Report Project in English By Claire Andrea Pascual – III-Arezzo Title: Paper Towns Author: John Green Genre: Young adult novel, mystery Characters: 1.) Quentin â€Å"Q† Jacobsen – He is the protagonist and the one who is telling the story. He is childhood friends and neighbors with Margo, who he also had a crush on ever since they were children. As the years passed, their contact with one another has decreased. As the story progress, he tries to unfold clues he thinks Margo intentionally left for him when she went missing. 2.) Margo Roth Spiegelman – Margo is Quentin’s childhood friend/neighbor who runs away from home. She was pursued by Q. She thinks planning out adventures is more fun than doing them. She was one of the†¦show more content†¦They escaped and then broke into SeaWorld, but Margo was disappointed because the animals weren’t there. They went back to their respective houses around the time they’re supposed to be waking up for school. All Quentin thought about the next day was how things have changed. He wondered if Margo will start hanging out with him and his friends, but she didn’t even show up in school that day. After Margo has been missing for three days, her parents filed a report. Margo’s parents were more frustrated than worried, because Margo already ran away five times in the past so they thought she’ll eventually come back. After learning that Margo ran away, he noticed a poster of Woody Guthrie attached to the back of the shades in her room. The poster led him to a song called Walt Whitman’s Niece, which then led him to a book of poems, Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass. There were sections in the book which were highlighted that led Q to believe that Margo intentionally left these for him to find. He then used these clues to find out where she was. He then foun d a piece of paper with an address on it. He and his friends skipped school the next day to go to the address indicated in hopes of finding Margo or at least, have an idea where she was. The address led him to a mini-mall which contained evidence that Margo was actually there. Eventually, the clues made Q believe that Margo may be hanging around oneShow MoreRelatedJohn green Essay example6063 Words   |  25 Pagesï » ¿John Green John Michael Green  (born August 24, 1977) is an  American  author of  young adult fiction  and a  YouTube  video blogger  and creator of online educational videos. He won the 2006  Printz Award  for his debut novel,  Looking for Alaska,  and reached number one on a  New York Times Best Seller list  with  The Fault in Our Stars  in January 2012. Green was born in Indianapolis to Mike and Sydney Green  and his family moved three weeks after he was born  to  Orlando, Florida.  He attended Lake HighlandRead MoreAnalysis Of John Green s Life2198 Words   |  9 Pagesis going be one hell of a story.† (Green) At least that’s what author John Green believes. He is the author of multiple New York Times best selling books and two major motion pictures. Some of Green’s work includes Looking for Alaska, The Fault in our Stars, Paper Towns, and Abundances of Katharine’s. John Green is one of the greatest young adult authors, vloggers, producers, and actors of our time. John Green was born on August 24, 1977 to Mike and Sydney Green in Indianapolis, Indiana. His familyRead MoreGreen Marketing - a Research Proposal3353 Words   |  14 PagesProject FOX Fad or Expedient? - Perceptions of Consumers and Organisations on Green Marketing. Mieke van Kaam a research proposal – 22 April 2012 Table of Contents 1. Background 3 2. Problem statement 3 3. Research objectives 4 4. The scope and limitations of the proposed research 4 5. Literature review 6 5.1. Green fever –A load of Greenwash or not. 6 5.2. How green can you go? 7 5.3. Lets collaborate! 7 5.4. Consumer evolution 8 6. Research plan 9 6.1. Description of researchRead MoreHuman Rights Law Is No Assistance For Dealing With Homelessness4009 Words   |  17 Pagesproportionality and exceptional circumstances in certain cases, and how Art 8 must be looked at when a person raises it as an issue and the governments green belt policy. The area of adverse possession will be explored in regards to squatters and the ECHR. Then lastly this essay will explore briefly the recent campaign of the E15 mothers and the theory of John Lockes social contract. 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The way John MacAuthur, Jr. explained the reed was that it was to represent royalty, a uthority, and power. After giving Jesus the reed the soldiers were making fun of Jesus by getting on their knees and pretending to worship Him. They then took the reed from hisRead MoreUrban Density And Urban Space1846 Words   |  8 Pageswalkable. Mixed land use, complete in heterogeneity and complexity, transforms the place in to an environment of interest, where the slow paced walking could find more affordances to interact with, thereby, making the place safer among strangers (Urry, John). This will be further explained in the following section. As mentioned earlier, transportation is an important factor in the development of an urban environment. The transportation system manifests the geographical, social, cultural, historical andRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War3899 Words   |  16 Pagesitself. In this research paper, I will discuss the various forms of Vietnam War protest and support, reflected in many forms of music during the sixties. Many of the songwriters, composers and musicians I will be covering will include people from the genres of folk, rock, soul, country and classical. In addition to this, the paper will also include analysis of what the songwriter or musician was trying to convey in their music to the American people. This research paper will also present informationRead MorePrenatal Care in Early 20th Century Kansas Essay3464 Words   |  14 Pagesprenatal care to the general public starting in the early 1900s with â€Å"The Kansas Mother’s Manual.† Many women in Kansas followed the guid elines issued within the handbooks, lectures, and posters. Yet, the women in the Southeast Kansas coal mining towns were disadvantaged when it came to prenatal care and childbirth. Infant mortality rates were quite high among the area. In order to understand the reasoning for such high mortality rates, a further examination of prenatal care in the area of SoutheastRead MoreThe Mexican American War : An Important Part Of United States History Essay1928 Words   |  8 Pagesthe United States government played an important role in securing this mindset in the people. The government made sure to share positive news with the citizens. One example of this is very early in the war after General Taylor occupied the Mexican town of Matamoros. Johannsen wrote, â€Å"Official dispatches from Taylor confirming his success were received by the government, and the capital immediately assumed an air of celebration† (Johannsen 10), which of course can be interpreted as meaning the governm ent

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Multinational Bank And Global Financial - Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss about the Multinational Bank And Global Financial. Answer: Introduction The worst economic disaster after the economic depression that took place in 1929 was known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC, 2008-09). The deregulation that happened in the financial industry was the major reason that led to the creation of this crisis. The rise in unemployment and the decline in the price of the real estate were some of the major causes that led to the evolution of GFC. It happened in the year 2007, as there was a decline in the assurance level of the investors present in the US regarding the mortgages of the subprime products. The increase in the volatility rate and the fall in the stock market were some of the major factors that contributed towards this crisis in 2008 of September. The collapse in the price of the houses led to a fall in the flow of remittance on a global manner by 6 percent in 2008-09. The institution known as IMF reviewed a statement saying that the output level shranked to 2.2 percent as the developing and the developed countries went in to a state of financial crisis (Attig et al. 2016). Nepal is considered to be not impacted on a direct manner by the effects of GFC but has felt it in an indirect manner. Discussion Possible causes Global saving- The core grounds regarding the rise in the asset prices was basically the factor of deficit that was seen in the current accounts, which prevailed in the US market. The countries with a deficit in their trade and current accounts were due to the increase in the savings of the people, which curtailed the borrowing capacity and becoming a lender to the US. The increase in the capacity to save was seen mostly in the developing countries, as there was reduction in the investment within the capital market that created an increase in saving on a global manner. The markets with respect to capital in the developed places were searching for funds, which would help in increasing the market demand along with the asset prices in the US stock and housing market. Price of houses- The decline in the price of the houses in a substantial manner was one of the shocks that led to the formation of global financial crisis. The period of 1996-2006 saw a rise in the value due to the lower interest rates and stress of forming a fresh economy. From middle of 2006 till 2009 mid-February, it was seen that the price of the houses had declined the most since 1987 (Balakrishnan et al. 2016). The mortgage lending mainly attracted the wealthy people so that it can be help in saddling the burdens regarding the mortgages that were large in nature. Figure 1: Housing prices (Source: imf.,org 2018) Rise in subprime lending and rate of interest- There was a further increase in the price of the houses because of sloppy standards of interest rate for the purpose of lending, which is associated with the global economy as well. The borrowers who had the loans were mainly subprime lenders and the standards also suffered because of the lack in the worthiness of credit of them. The rise in fed rates resulted in costly borrowing (Dungey and Gajurel 2014). Furthermore, the cost of the buildings also created an impact, as the mortgage rate moved from descending to ascending rates in the market place. Credit booms- The trigger for the crisis was the major participation that the expansion rate had on credit, which kept on increasing in the market. The access for the credit increased at a greater rate as there was a boom in the market regarding the houses in places like Ireland, Spain, European countries and the UK. The recurring flux that was happening in the economy was because of the rapid credit growth. The indebtedness in the housing properties also increased in the US market after 2000 due to the slow credit growth within the economy (Bauer and Thant 2015). The fiscal innovations and the mortgage finances were the major contributors that led to the problem in housing sector indebtedness. Probability of repeating the financial crisis Regarding the job cycle theory, it can be seen that the financial crisis can be repeated in the future. There is a possibility for this occurrence because of the stage of development, which would escort the market to another phase of depression. Figure 2: Possibility of GFC (Source: Created by Author) Financial crisis of different countries and Nepal The effect on financial sector- The presentation on the level of macro economy revelation to the foreign market and the health of the financial sector changes from one economy to another. The impact of foreign direct investment along with the flow of the capital had an adverse impact and influenced the economy of countries like India. The deficit in the fiscal and the current account has also affected countries like Sri Lanka as the inflow of capital was low through the external manner and the spread of the bond of the bond in the nation increased. The shock on the global fiscal crisis was also seen in Nepal because the nation was growing through the state of lower growth. The decline regarding the prices of the fuel and food led to the increase of inflation, which was indicated by the loans that were not performing in the market. These factors contributed heavily towards a weaker financial sector within the country (Albertazzi and Bottero 2014). Impact of remittance- The turning down of the remittance flow in 2008-2009 was 6 percent because of the effect of financial crisis on a global manner and the least striking countries were the regions in Asia Pacific when compared to a fall of two percent in countries like Central Asia, Latin America, Middle East and North Asia. Figure 3: Flow of remittance (Source: Vazquez and Federico 2015) Figure 4: Growth of remittance in Nepal (Source: lib.icimod.org 2018) In the case of Nepal it can be seen that the flow of remittance did not create any impact and the flow did not decries from 1998 to 2010. The country was the 5th largest in the world with respect to the recipient of remittances and the share of Gross Domestic Product. Reserve for foreign exchange- The business industry of the countries that were developing had an effect because of the crisis, as it increased the funding problems that were the cause of the foreign exchange loss. The funding needs of the vendor needed to be decreased, which resulted in providing the funds that were necessary in funding the foreign exchange. The pool that was present in foreign exchange in the Nepalese banks for decreasing the interest income and the remittance inflow was delayed. The reserves in the foreign exchange decreased from 21.9 percent to 17.3 percent from the financial year 2007-08 to 2008-09. Macroeconomic balances impact- The trade stock decreased the macroeconomic balances in the South Asian countries. Few months back during the financial crisis time, it can be seen that the commodity prices were declining, as there was a delay in the earnings from the exports and the remittance flow (Vazquez and Federico 2015). The decrease in the price level may result in the decline of the earnings from the income as well. Import- The products were imported, as it saw a increase in the features of the fuel and food. The decrease in the prices of the commodity on a further level was because of the recession that happened in the OECD countries and the South Asian countries, which also had an optimistic impact. Impact of financial crisis on housing industry Investment- The increase in the price of the assets within the banks along with process of funding process that caused a delay were some of the major attributors towards the risk in the growth of investment. This resulted in keeping the profits low for the organizations that deal with the products for exporting purposes. The finances that are available in a domestic manner for investment purposes decreased for delaying the investment rate within the local economy. The growth of investment in the South Asian countries decreased because of the delay in earning of exports and foreign capital (Boychuk et al. 2012). Impact of GFC in share market The financial crisis led to a higher volatility degree within the stock market, as it varies from one market to another and the crisis in 2009 was because of the mortgage in the subprime market and the liquidity crisis that led the crash in the stock market. Most of the countries were under the grip of the crash that happened in the stock market and the crisis that took place in the US market increased the volatility rate in the markets of Australia and New Zealand. The stock markets that were present in Germany, US and Japan had a pattern of volatility as well. The volatility level increased that led to the rise in the borrowing costs, which resulted in low confidence within the investors (Benetrix et al. 2015). The monetary industry in Nepal has no relation with the financial system in a global manner closely for which the economy did not endure from the impacts of the financial crisis in the beginning. The share and the investment market within the nation have no link with the investment on a global manner in a direct manner. The availability of the funds in the Nepalese banks led to an indirect impact for the crisis as the demand declined in an aggregate manner along with a weak spending capacity of the consumers (Cayon et al. 2017). Reforms for reduction in financial crisis Capital planning and stress testing- The federal reserve of the banks have to analyze their capital, which help in the review of the capacity of lending at the time of economic downturn. The testing of the level of stress can be another method that will help in designing a framework based on risk capital (Obstfeld 2015). Heightened regulation of capital- The requirement of capital relying on has to be increased, which will help in the asset relation with the risks and the common equity (Haas and Lelyveld 2014). The capital standards of the banks have to be higher along with regulations needs to be done on the basis of risks so that the banks can allot more capital on the assets that are risky. Conclusion Therefore, the global financial crisis created different effects on various countries and Nepal in particular. The crisis happened during the second and third encompassing of the flow of remittance within the country along with the reserves in the foreign exchange and the price of the commodities. Furthermore, the crash in the stock market of the different countries had limited the growth in the market. Reference List Abraham, V. and Rajan, S.I., 2014. Global Financial Crisis and Return of South Asian Gulf Migrants. India Migration Report 2012: Global Financial Crisis, Migration and Remittances, p.197. Albertazzi, U. and Bottero, M., 2014. Foreign bank lending: evidence from the global financial crisis. Journal of International Economics, 92, pp.S22-S35 Attig, N., Boubakri, N., El Ghoul, S. and Guedhami, O., 2016. The global financial crisis, family control, and dividend policy. Financial Management, 45(2), pp.291-313. Balakrishnan, K., Watts, R. and Zuo, L., 2016. The effect of accounting conservatism on corporate investment during the global financial crisis. Journal of Business Finance Accounting, 43(5-6), pp.513-542. Bauer, A. and Thant, M. eds., 2015. Poverty and sustainable development in Asia: Impacts and responses to the global economic crisis. Asian Development Bank. Bntrix, A., Lane, P.R. and Shambaugh, J.C., 2015. DP10325 International Currency Exposures, Valuation Effects and the Global Financial Crisis. Boychuk, G.W., Mahon, R. and McBride, S. eds., 2015. After'08: Social Policy and the Global Financial Crisis. UBC Press. Cayon, E., Thorp, S. and Wu, E., 2017. Immunity and infection: Emerging and developed market sovereign spreads over the Global Financial Crisis. Emerging Markets Review. Claessens, S. and Van Horen, N., 2015. The impact of the global financial crisis on banking globalization. IMF Economic Review, 63(4), pp.868-918. Dungey, M. and Gajurel, D., 2014. Equity market contagion during the global financial crisis: Evidence from the world's eight largest economies. Economic Systems, 38(2), pp.161-177. Haas, R. and Lelyveld, I., 2014. Multinational banks and the global financial crisis: Weathering the perfect storm?. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 46(s1), pp.333-364. IMF. (2016).IMFs Response to the Global Economic Crisis. [online]Availableat: https://www.imf.org/en/About/Factsheets/Sheets/2016/07/27/15/19/Response-to-the-Global-Economic-Crisis [Accessed 18 Jan. 2018]. Kemp, P.A., 2015. Private renting after the global financial crisis. Housing Studies, 30(4), pp.601-620. Lib.icimod.org. (2018). [online] Available at: https://lib.icimod.org/record/26979/files/c_attachment_767_6007.pdf [Accessed 18 Jan. 2018]. Obstfeld, M., 2015. after the Global Financial Crisis. POLICY CHALLENGES IN A DIVERGING GLOBAL ECONOMY, p.383 Ojo, A.O., 2016. Corporate governance and risk management in the financial industry: changes after the global financial crisis. Vazquez, F. and Federico, P., 2015. Bank funding structures and risk: Evidence from the global financial crisis. Journal of banking finance, 61, pp.1-14.